Employer A should've informed USCIS and withdrawn the petition once an H1b employee leaves. They should re-petition (and pay again) to re-hire this employee. Usually an employer's attorney should handle H1b-related matters.
There was something similar in your thread about a year or so ago. SInce you got the green card through your parents, why haven't you made the US your permanent home?
Expect these and perhaps additional questions the next border crossing attempt. You may be flagged in CBP's database.
No, you cannot.
Suggest that you use the visitor visa to visit, and not look for ways to stay longer. When you applied for the b2 and interviewed, did you mention a desire to adjust visa status once in the US?
Sorry to hear about your dad's health.
A USCIS officer can review your entire immigration file and use his/her discretion adjudicating the n400. If you expect to be out longer than six months cumulatively, you're better of leaving the US with a reentry permit and applying for Naturalization...
Parents, or sister can sponsor you, but it's a long wait, many many years. Once a visa is available, you interview in your country. Cannot use a B2 visa to stay in the US. Tourist visa is for short visits only.
Naturalization odds depend a great deal on the length of your trip(s) outside the US.
Do you expect the trip, or trips, to last less than 6 months, or longer than 6 months cumulatively? Applying for a reentry permit is one solution to preserve US residence if the trip could be longer than 6...
His employer encouraging him to stay sounds spurious, as no employer would want an employee to run afoul of US law. What was your friend's intent when he entered the US?
Is the friend familiar with the weather.com site or app?
Employer based timelines depends to an extent on her country of citizenship, and her EB (1-3?) category.
Spousal is usually faster compared to employment, but as noted above, an approval with under 2 years of marriage has the added burden of ROC 2 years after the green card.